Apple's Best Arguments Against the U.S. Over iPhone Access

"Indeed, the act wasn’t meant to lead to new lawmaking, said Jeffrey Vagle, executive director of the Center for Technology, Innovation and Competition at the University of Pennsylvania Law School. One could argue that compelling a company to produce something -- code, for instance -- effectively does just that.

But the dearth of applicable case law is a problem for this argument, Vagle said. The New York Telephone ruling set a strong precedent that communications firms had a duty to “provide technical assistance.”"