Title II Supporters

OVERVIEW

Many businesses, investment firms, civil societies, Senators, Members of the House, Mayors, and public officials support Title II.
They are listed below.

Return to NN FCC Comments

Businesses

  1. Automattic/Wordpress.com
  2. Buzzfeed
  3. Codecademy
  4. Codecombat
  5. Cogent
  6. Contextly
  7. Data Foundry
  8. Distinc.tt
  9. Dwolla
  10. Etsy
  11. Floor 64/TechDirt.com
  12. Foursquare
  13. Gandi
  14. General Assembly
  15. Gilt
  16. Goldenfrog
  17. Heyzap
  18. Kickstarter
  19. LendUp
  20. Meetup
  21. MobileWorks
  22. Mozilla
  23. Netflix
  24. OpenCurriculum
  25. Opera
  26. Pocket
  27. Reddit
  28. Rewheel
  29. Spotify
  30. TerrAvion
  31. ThoughtWorks
  32. TouchCast
  33. Tumblr
  34. Union Square Ventures
  35. Upworthy
  36. VHX
  37. Vimeo
  38. Warby Parker
  39. Y Combinator

Civil Society

  1. Access
  2. American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
  3. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
  4. American Library Association and more
  5. Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT)
  6. Center for Media Justice
  7. ColorOfChange
  8. Common Cause
  9. Comptel
  10. Computer & Communications Industry Association (CCIA)
  11. Consumer Federation of America (CFA)
  12. Consumer's Union
  13. CREDO
  14. Demand Progress
  15. Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
  16. Engine
  17. Fight for the Future
  18. Free Press
  19. Future of Music Coalition
  20. i2Coalition
  21. MoveOn
  22. National Hispanic Media Coalition
  23. Open Media and Information Companies Initiative (Open MIC)
  24. Public Knowledge (with Benton and Access Sonoma Broadband)
  25. Rural Broadband Policy Group (NTCA)
  26. Voices for Internet Freedom
  27. Writers Guild of America, West

Investment Firms

  1. Arjuna Capital/Baldwin Brothers Inc.
  2. As You Sow Foundation
  3. Calvert Investments
  4. Clean Yield Asset Management
  5. Colorado Sustainable Financial Planning
  6. First Affirmative Financial Network
  7. Nathan Cummings Foundation
  8. Park Foundation
  9. Trillium Asset Management
  10. Zevin Asset Management
 

US Senators

  1. Richard Blumenthal
  2. Corey Booker
  3. Barbara Boxer
  4. Ben Cardin
  5. Al Franken
  6. Kristen Gillibrand
  7. Ed Markey
  8. Jeff Merkley
  9. Bernie Sanders
  10. Charles Schumer
  11. Elizabeth Warren
  12. Sheldon Whitehouse
  13. Ron Wyden

Members of the House

  1. Earl Blumenauer
  2. Michael E. Capuano
  3. André D. Carson
  4. David N. Cicilline
  5. John Conyers, Jr.
  6. Peter De Fazio
  7. Donna F. Edwards
  8. Keith Ellison
  9. Sam Farr
  10. Alan Grayson
  11. Raúl M. Grijalva
  12. Rush Holt
  13. Mike Honda
  14. Jared Huffman
  15. Marcy Kaptur
  16. Barbara Lee
  17. John Lewis
  18. Zoe Lofgren
  19. Alan Lowenthal
  20. Betty McCollum
  21. Jim McDermott
  22. Jim McGovern
  23. Michel Michaud
  24. Jerrold Nadler
  25. Eleanor Holmes Norton
  26. Beto O'Rourke
  27. Mark Pocan
  28. Charles B. Rangel
  29. Tim Ryan
  30. John Sarbanes
  31. Jan Schakowsky
  32. Bobby Scott
  33. José E. Serrano
  34. Carol Shea-Porter
  35. Mark Takano
  36. John F. Tierney
  37. Pete Visclosky

Mayors

  1. Bill De Blasio (NYC)
  2. Charlie Hales (Portland)
  3. Edwin Lee (SF)

States, Cities and Utilities

  1. City of Los Angeles, CA
  2. New York & Illinois State Attorney Generals
  3. Massachusetts Dept. of Telecommunications and Cable
  4. Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission
  5. City of Philadelphia, PA
  6. Vermont State Attorney General
  7. Washington State Attorney General

The following would support the FCC if it pursued Title II.

  1. AOL (as a "backstop")
  2. Congresswoman Anna Eshoo ("specifically" welcoming consideration of Title II)
  3. Senator Bill Nelson (urging consideration of Title II)
  4. Senator Harry Reid (would "lead the fight" to defend "any" open Internet rules)
  5. Senator Jay Rockefeller (urging FCC to consider "all viable options")
  6. Congressman Henry Waxman (proposing the "undisputed Title II" authority as a backstop)
  7. Yahoo (as a "last resort")

     


    DETAIL

    For listings including quotes from their respective FCC Comments, scroll below:
    Businesses · Civil Society · Investment Firms · US Senators · Members of the House
    Mayors · States, Cities, and Utilities

     


    BUSINESSES

    Developer Tool · eCommerce · Education · Gaming · ISP & Hosting · Investors · Media · Payment · Search Engines & Browsers · Social Network · Video Streaming

     

    Several of America's largest tech companies, including Amazon, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Twitter, and Yahoo have submitted a letter to the FCC in defense of net neutrality.

     

    DEVELOPER TOOL

    Kickstarter

    "Title II, with appropriate forbearance, strikes us as the obvious legal path for ensuring a free and open internet."


    ECOMMERCE

    Etsy

    "We also urged the Commission to consider reclassification of broadband Internet access as a Title II service, subject to appropriate forbearance."

    Gilt

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

    Warby Parker

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

     


    EDUCATION

    General Assembly

    "General Assembly believes we need strong network neutrality rules that prohibit blocking, discrimination, and access fees. These require reclassification under Title II of the Communications Act."

    Codecademy

    "We urge the FCC to create clear rules, based on Title II of the Communications Act..."

    Codecombat

    "We urge the FCC to reclassify ISPs as common carriers under Title II of the Communications Act..."

    OpenCurriculum

    "The FCC should instead reclassify access to the Internet as a common carrier service..."

     


    GAMING

    Heyzap

    "To impose [net neutrality] rules, the FCC must reclassify broadband providers under Title II of the Communications Act."

     


    INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER & HOSTING

    Cogent

    Data Foundry

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."


    INVESTORS

    Over 100 VCs and angel investors voiced their concern to the FCC regarding the impact that they expect a retreat from open internet rules would have on internet innovation.

    Union Square Ventures

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

    Y Combinator

    "Title II of the Communications Act seems the most appropriate way to properly define broadband ISPs to be offering telecommunications. Speaking on behalf of Y Combinator, I'm urging you to adopt such a rule."


    MEDIA

    Automattic/Wordpress.com

    "We...all see the vibrant, open Internet that developed as a result, and the primary goal of any FCC rulemaking should be to preserve this. The only effective way to do so is with anti-discrimination rules, which can only be adopted under Title II."

    BuzzFeed

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

    Contextly

    "We are aware that such a [net neutrality] rule would require Title II of the Communications Act, following the decision in Verizon v. FCC."

    Floor64

    Golden Frog

    Pocket

    Reddit

    "We urge the FCC to classify broadband providers under Title II of the Communications Act..."

    Spotify

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

    ThoughtWorks

    "ThoughtWorks urges the FCC to reverse its 2002 decision to treat broadband as an "information service" rather than a telecommunications service and to reclassify broadband under Title II of the communications act."

    Tumblr

    "Because of Chairman Wheeler's draft proposal, many in the NYC tech community are deeply concerned for the future of their businesses and their jobs."

    Upworthy

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

     


    PAYMENT

    Dwolla

    "The FCC should impose a rule against unreasonable discrimination, relying on Title II of the Communications Act."

     


    SEARCH ENGINES AND BROWSERS

    Mozilla

    "Mozilla recommends the Commission instead use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to adopt enforceable protections.."

    Opera

    "We urge the FCC to classify broadband providers under Title II of the Communications Act..."

     


    SOCIAL NETWORK

    Meetup

    "Title II, with appropriate forbearance, strikes us as the obvious legal path for ensuring a free and open internet."

    Foursquare

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

     


    VIDEO STREAMING

    Netflix

    "Title II provides a solid basis to adopt prohibitions on blocking and unreasonable discrimination by ISPs."

    TouchCast

    "We urge the FCC to reconsider its proposal, and to classify broadband providers under Title II of the Communications Act ."

    VHX

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

    Vimeo

    "...the only way that the FCC can draw that bright line is for the agency to reclassify broadband Internet access service as a telecommunications service under Title II of the Communications Act."

     


     

    CIVIL SOCIETY

    Return to top

    Access

    "The FCC must grab this opportunity to assert its full authority under Title II, and implement strong regulations protecting the open internet and innovation online."

    American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)

    "The D.C. Circuit ruling in Verizon v. FCC clearly illustrates that what is missing from the framework contained in the Commission's 2010 Open Internet Order is a Title II telecommunications foundation."

    American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

    "The D.C. Circuit ruling in Verizon v. FCC clearly illustrates that what is missing from the framework contained in the Commission's 2010 Open Internet Order is a Title II telecommunications foundation."

    American Library Association and more

    "Title II reclassification would provide valuable certainty to the marketplace and place public broadband Internet access service on an equal regulatory footing with other communications services."

    Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT)

    "Classifying such service as a telecommunications service subject to Title II of the Communications Act would eliminate the specific legal obstacle that proved to be the downfall of the 2010 rules, and thus could provide a stable long-term base of authority for open Internet rules."

    Center for Media Justice

    "reclassifying Internet service providers as Title II "common carriers" is the soundest legal theory on which to base open Internet rules."

    Color of Change

    "ColorOfChange.org urges the Commission to classify the transmission component of Internet access service as a Title II telecommunications service..."

    Common Cause

    "The Commission has repeatedly voiced its commitment to a strong Open Internet. Now it must base this commitment on the strongest authority possible. That means reclassification under Title II of the Communications Act."

    COMPTEL

    "To preserve the Internet's open architecture, the Commission should use Title II...

    Computer & Communications Industry Association (CCIA)

    "The Commission's commitment to preserving an open Internet has not wavered, and its path toward that goal is now clear: adopt rules under Title II..."

    Consumer Federation of America (CFA)

    Consumer's Union

    "Title II is the best way to protect consumers."

    CREDO

    "The Internet is a public utility and the FCC must regulate Internet providers as common carriers..."

    Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)

    "As the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals explained in Verizon v FCC, the Commission cannot impose meaningful non-discrimination obligations on Internet access providers without treating them as common carriers. It is time to stop trying. Reclassification will give the FCC the authority it needs to do its part to support the open Internet."

    Engine

    "We therefore urge the Commission to reclassify broadband Internet service as a Title II service so it will have the authority to implement robust net neutrality rules across all platforms."

    Fight for the Future

    "Title II is the strong, legally sound way to enforce net neutrality. Use it"

    Free Press

    "The goal is to preserve the open pathway. The only way to do that is to restore common carriage."

    Future of Music Coalition

    "To promote innovation and competition, we urge the Commission to reclassify and use their ample Title II authority."

    i2Coalition

    "The most effective way for the Commission to protect and promote the open Internet is to implement Open Access by reclassifying the broadband transmission component as a Title II telecommunications service."

    Open Media and Information Companies Initiative (Open MIC)

    "As Investors, we believe classification of broadband Internet service under Title II of the Communications Act would best protect the open Internet as a platform for economic growth and innovation."

    National Hispanic Media Coalition

    "The only way to preserve the atmosphere [of innovation] would be for the Commission to utilize its Title II authority..."

    Public Knowledge (with Benton and Access Sonoma Broadband)

    "To best ensure that it adopts rules designed to protect all of the internet—not just its commercial aspects—the Commission should require that broadband access providers operate as common carriers."

    Rural Broadband Policy Group - NTCA

    "All transport and transmission capacity offered on underlying networks should be regulated pursuant to Title II..."

    Voices for Internet Freedom

    "Internet Freedom Supporters urge the Commission to reclassify Internet access service as a Title II telecommunications service."

    Writers Guild of America, West

    "Title II classification remains the most appropriate legal category for a quintessential telecommunications service like Internet access..."


     

    INVESTMENT FIRMS

    Return to top

    Trillium

    "As Investors, we believe classification of broadband Internet service under Title II of the Communications Act would best protect the open Internet as a platform for economic growth and innovation."


     

    SENATORS

    Return to top

    Senator Richard Blumenthal

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Corey Booker

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Ben Cardin

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Al Franken

    "The most straightforward and effective way to protect the Open Internet is to reclassify broadband Internet as a common carrier under Title II of the Telecommunications Act."

    Senator Kristin Gillibrand

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Ed Markey

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Jeff Merkley

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Bill Nelson

    "I am very concerned about reports that the NPRM will presumptively allow "paid prioritization arrangements" as long as they are "commercially reasonable."

    Senator Bernie Sanders

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Charles Schumer

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Elizabeth Warren

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Sheldon Whitehouse

    We believe that authority already resides in Title II. By reclassifying the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service, with appropriate forbearance, the FCC could prevent online discrimination.

    Senator Ron Wyden

    "Whatever legal gymnastics may be performed in the coming months, it is plain old common sense to any Internet user that broadband access providers -- all broadband access providers -- are providing telecommunications services covered by Title II."


     

    MEMBERS OF THE HOUSE

    Return to top

    Congressman Earl Blumenauer

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Michael E. Capuano

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Andre Carson

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman David N. Cicilline

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman John Conyers, Jr.

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Peter De Fazio

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congresswoman Donna F. Edwards

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Keith Ellison

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Sam Farr

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Alan Grayson

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Raúl M. Grijalva

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Rush Holt

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Mike Honda

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Jared Huffman

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congresswoman Marcy Kaptur

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congresswoman Barbara Lee

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman John Lewis

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Alan Lowenthal

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congresswoman Betty McCollum

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Jim McDermott

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Michel Michaud

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Jerrold Nadler

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Beto O'Rourke

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Mark Pocan

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Charles B. Rangel

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Tim Ryan

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman John Sarbanes

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman John Sarbanes

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congreswosman Jan Schakowsky

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Bobby Scott

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman José E. Serrano

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congresswoman Carol Shea-Porter

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Mark Takano

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman John F. Tierney

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."

    Congressman Pete Visclosky

    "We urge the FCC to use its clear authority under Title II of the Communications Act to reclassify the transmission component of broadband Internet access as a telecommunications service."


     

    MAYORS

    Return to top

    Bill De Blasio (NYC)

    We believe that the most effective way to truly protect the open Internet is for the FCC to break with its previous approach and re-classify broadband Internet as a telecommunications service subject to regulation as a common carrier.

    Charlie Hales (Portland)

    We believe that the most effective way to truly protect the open Internet is for the FCC to break with its previous approach and re-classify broadband Internet as a telecommunications service subject to regulation as a common carrier.

    Edwin Lee (SF)

    We believe that the most effective way to truly protect the open Internet is for the FCC to break with its previous approach and re-classify broadband Internet as a telecommunications service subject to regulation as a common carrier.


     

    STATES, CITIES AND UTILITIES

    Return to top

    City of Los Angeles, CA

    "The City believes that the Commission would be well within its authority if it were to reclassify Internet access service as a telecommunications service."

    New York & Illinois State Attorney Generals

    "This goal [of openness] can be achieved by making the necessary reclassification so that broadband Internet access service is classified as a "telecommunications service," giving consumers and content providers the protections associated with common carrier services."

    City of Philadelphia, PA

    "Philadelphia's "information economy" has developed rapidly in the last decade, becoming a major source of growth in small businesses and startups, and the well-paying jobs they can bring. Network barriers limiting high speed access to those who can pay a premium for it will disadvantage these new enterprises and stifle an important engine for the City's economic growth."

    Vermont State Attorney General

    "The time has come to correct the mistake made over a decade ago: reclassify broadband providers as "telecommunications services" rather than " information services."

    Washington State Attorney General

    "Allowing Internet service providers to charge content providers for preferential treatment could limit the content choices available to consumers and make it difficult for consumers to access the content of their choice."

    Massachusetts Dept of Telecommunications and Cable

    Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission

    "The Pa. PUC believes that its modified common carriage proposals provide the basis for the consistent formulation and implementation of standards that would not only protect the open Internet but would continue to provide the appropriate economic incentives for the continuous deployment of broadband access network facilities and services throughout the United States with the appropriate support from the federal and state USF mechanisms."